Did it ever cross your mind the number of birds that people consume on a daily bases? And do you know that even you can get your own part of that money people spend on meat everyday? All you need to do is just take my hand as I guard you through the process of starting a profitable poultry business in Nigeria and if only you can take action I can assure you that you will be thanking me for showing you this. Let`s get started.
According to Wikipedia, poultry farming is the practice of raising domesticated birds such as chickens, turkeys, ducks and geese for the purpose of farming meat or eggs for foods. More than 50 billion chickens are raised annually as a source of food, for both their meat and their eggs. Chickens raised for eggs are usually called layers while chickens raised for meat are often called broilers.
So, because of profitability and popularity, I will be talking on raising chickens for maximum profit.
Housing: This depend on the size of the farm you want. You can just make one locally or an empty building can be used or you can even make one from a carpenter. You don’t need to cover it all round it needs ventilation so make space for it and you can also use room in your compound that is not in use.
Feeder: You can get it from any poultry dealers close to you or you can even construct it yourself. It is used to feed the birds.
Drinkers: Can also constructed or bought from sellers in the market.
Heat source: You can make use of anything that can produce heat to keep your chicks warm, eg. electric bulb or lamp can serve this purpose.
Wood shavings: It is used to cover the flow for easy remove of poultry droppings
Day old chicks: Depending on how you want to start, if you want to start from brooding then you can go for day old chicks, if not you have to go for brooded birds (3-4 weeks old).
Brood is the management of chick from a day old to about five weeks of age. Brooding determines to a great extent the rate of mortality and the growth performance of the flock.
There are many types of brooder that can be used in poultry production enterprises depending on location, cost and availability. But what we most put into consideration is it ability to produce or generate enough heat without producing smoke or fumes as it is hazardous to the chicks.
The brooding house should be heated to about 27oC before the arrival of chicks (that is if you are buying day old chick).
You don’t even need a room thermometer to take the temperature readings you can use the behaviour or distribution of chicks around heat sources to determine if the chicks are comfortable or not under the brooder. Insufficient brooding temperature will result into crowding of chicks near the heat source and a very high temperature will make chicks to spread their wings and stay further away from heat source.
All in all out system should be done in brooding house. In addition to adequate heating, provide fresh cool water and 24/7 light so the chicks can see and feed at all time. Poor brooding environments may lead to reduced growth rate and increased feed consumption ratio. These have negative effect on the life of your birds so care must be taken. Chicks exposed to low temperature and high ammonia concentration during brooding may have lower productivity and immunity.
Effect of Heat
Like new born babies, chicks lack the ability to regulate their internal temperature, so they depend on the temperature of the environment. And the digestion of feed in chicks depends on the normal temperature, so cool environment in their early life is serious problem and a threat to their survival.
Discovery has shown that flock performance can be seriously affected with high ammonia concentration of about 25ppm during brooding and can cause immuno-suppression (it reduce resistance). So change the wood shaving regularly and ensure proper ventilation to take care of that.
Things You Need to Do
- Remove all chicks showing any obvious signs of sickness or even weakness
- Put glucose in water for the chicks and feed them with flat tray. Day old chicks should be of high quality, sourced from hatcheries known to produce birds having good growth rate, disease free and without abnormalities.
- Give proper attention to chick at the early stage especially during the first fifteen (15) days to make sure that the brooding temperature is maintained.
- All dead should be removed and burnt or buried immediately.
- You will supply them heat until they can regulate their internal temperature. When the feather begins to grow then your bird can now be able to regulate temperature. You can now stop supplying heat source, only light maybe needed for sight at night.
- Day 1-7 – give vitamins and antibiotics.
- Day 7 – give gumboro vaccine.
- Day 8-13 – give vitamins.
- Day 14 – give lasota (new castel disease vaccine)
- Day 21 – give anti coccidiosis for 7 days.
Remember all I am talking about here is for the production of broilers (day old chicks).
Also, you may need to de-worm your birds for better growth rate.
Now after 4-5 weeks you will have to change the feed from starter to broiler finisher. Within the first 4 weeks you can use starter, then you can start introduce finisher from the 5th weeks.
Mind you if you change the feed at once your birds will not eat and it will lead to problems. So you have to start mixing the feed (both boiler starter and finisher) when you are about to change from starter to finisher.
Remember, sick bird should be isolated immediately and bought to the attention of a veterinarian and you should keep adequate record of every money spent on your farm and your sales.
I believe with the above write-up, you can now start your own profitable poultry farming in Nigeria right from home, even with little start-up capital. If you have any question or feedback, please use the comment form below to post them.